Processing

Please wait...

Settings

Settings

Goto Application

1. WO2021007245 - NOVEL METHODS

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

NOVEL METHODS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to and the benefit of U.S. provisional application No. 62/871,170, filed on July 7, 2019, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure relates to use of lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, for the treatment of Bipolar II Disorder.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Substituted heterocycle fused gamma-carbolines such as lumateperone are known to be 5-HT2A or 5-HT2A/D2 receptor ligands, which are useful in treating central nervous system disorders. These compounds antagonize the serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor, and/or modulate dopamine receptor signaling at the level of key intra-cellular phosphoproteins. Such compounds are principally known to be useful for the treatment of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. At dopamine D2 receptors, these compounds have dual properties and act as both post-synaptic antagonists and pre-synaptic partial agonists. They also stimulate phosphorylation of glutamatergic NMDA NR2B, or GluN2B, receptors in a mesolimbic specific manner. It is believed that this regional selectivity in the brain areas thought to mediate the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs, together with the serotonergic, glutamatergic, and dopaminergic interactions, may result in antipsychotic efficacy for positive, negative, affective and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. The compounds also exhibit serotonin reuptake inhibition, providing antidepressant activity for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, co-morbid depression, and/or as a stand-alone treatment for major depressive disorder. The 5-HT2A or 5-HT2A/D2 receptor ligands as described are also useful for the treatment of bipolar disorder and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, particularly behavioral disturbances associated with dementia, autism and other CNS diseases. These features may be able to

improve the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia and enhance social function to allow them to more fully integrate into their families and their workplace. These compounds display differential dose-dependent effects, selectively targeting the 5-HT2A receptor at low doses, while progressively interacting with the D2 receptor at higher doses. As a result, at lower doses, they are useful in treating sleep, aggression and agitation. At a high-dose, they can treat acute exacerbated and residual schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and mood disorders.

[0003] Lumateperone, which is 4-((6bR,10aS)-3-methyl-2,3,6b,9,10,10a-hexahydro-lH-pyrido[3',4': 4,5]pyrrolo[l,2,3-de]quinoxalin-8(7H)-yl)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)-l-butanone, having the formula:


is a therapeutic agent now in clinical trials. Lumateperone provides selective and simultaneous modulation of serotonin, dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. It exhibits potent (Ki=0.5nM) 5-HT2A receptor antagonism, activity as a mesolimbic/mesocortical-selective dopamine receptor protein phosphorylation modulator consistent with presynaptic D2 receptor partial agonism and postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonism (Ki=32nM) in vivo , high D1 receptor affinity (Ki=52nM), and inhibition of the serotonin transporter (SERT) (Ki=26-62nM, using different assays for SERT activity). Lumateperone was approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in 2019, and it is or has been in Phase III clinical development as a treatment for bipolar depression and agitation in dementia, including Alzheimer’s Disease.

[0004] Lumateperone and related compounds have been disclosed in U.S. Pat. No.


compounds useful for the treatment of disorders associated with 5-HT2A receptor modulation such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, schizophrenia, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, migraine, conditions associated with cephalic pain, and social phobias. PCT/US08/03340 and

U.S. Pat. No. 7,081,455 also disclose methods of making substituted heterocycle fused gamma-carbolines and uses of these gamma-carbolines as serotonin agonists and antagonists useful for the control and prevention of central nervous system disorders such as addictive behavior and sleep disorders. WO 2009/145900 and U.S. 8,598,119, and WO 2013/155506 and US

2015/0080404, each incorporated herein by reference, disclose the use of specific substituted heterocycle fused gamma-carbolines for the treatment of a combination of psychosis and depressive disorders as well as sleep, depressive and/or mood disorders in patients with psychosis or Parkinson's disease and for the treatment or prophylaxis of disorders associated with dementia, particularly behavioral or mood disturbances such as agitation, irritation,

aggressive/assaultive behavior, anger, physical or emotional outbursts and psychosis and sleep disorders associated with dementia. WO 2009/114181 and U.S. 8,648,077, and

US2020/0157100, each incorporated herein by reference, disclose methods of preparing toluenesulfonic acid addition salt crystals of particular substituted heterocycle fused gamma-carbolines, e.g., toluenesulfonic acid addition salt of lumateperone (mono-tosylate and bis-tosylate salts).

[0005] WO 2011/133224 and U.S. 8,993,572, each incorporated herein by reference, disclose prodrugs/metabolites of substituted heterocycle fused gamma-carbolines for improved formulation, e.g., extended/controlled release formulation. This application discloses that heterocycle fused gamma-carboline N-substituted with a 4-fluorophenyl(4-hydroxy)butyl moiety are shown to have high selectivity for the serotonin transporter (SERT) relative to the

heterocycle fused gamma-carboline containing 4-fluorophenylbutanone.

[0006] WO 2009/145900 (and U.S. 8,598,119) teaches that selected substituted heterocycle fused gamma-carboline compounds have nanomolar affinity for the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and so are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

[0007] As disclosed in WO2015/154025, US 2017/0183350, WO 2017/165843, and US 2019/231780, each incorporated herein by reference, deuterated forms of lumateperone and related compounds have been shown to have improved metabolic stability.

[0008] According to the National Institute of Mental Health, bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely“up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad,“down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.

a. Bipolar I Disorder- defined by manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic

symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible.

b. Bipolar II Disorder- defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes described above.

c. Cyclothymic Disorder (also called cyclothymia)- defined by numerous periods of

hypomanic symptoms as well numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic episode and a depressive episode.

d. Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders- defined by bipolar

disorder symptoms that do not match the three categories listed above.

[0009] The etiology of bipolar disorder remains unclear, and the disorder remains resistant to treatment. Pharmaceutical treatments include mood stabilizing drugs, such as lithium or anticonvulsants (e.g., carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate). Conventional antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not only less effective for treating bipolar depression than for major depressive disorder, but they may do harm, by triggering manic episodes and rapid cycling.

[0010] Antipsychotic medications are generally effective for short-term treatment of bipolar manic episodes in Bipolar I Disorder, but they are generally ineffective in treating Bipolar II Disorder and in maintenance treatment during depressive episodes. Moreover, many

antipsychotic medications exhibit significant side effects, such as extrapy rami dal symptoms including acute dyskinesias and dystonic reactions, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, akinesia, akathisia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

[0011] For example, the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole was extensively evaluated for treatment of bipolar disorder, but a review of the clinical data concluded:“Although aripiprazole has proven efficacy for acute mania and the prevention of mania, the evidence available thus far does not support the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of acute bipolar depression and prevention of depressive relapse.” Yatham LN,“A clinical review of aripiprazole in bipolar depression and maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder.” J Affect. Disord. 2011 Jan; 128 Suppl ES21-8. Aripiprazole is currently approved in the United States for“Acute Treatment of Manic and Mixed Episodes associated with Bipolar I.” It is not currently approved to treat Bipolar II Disorder.

[0012] While there are many antipsychotic agents approved to treat mania associated with Bipolar I Disorder, only four antipsychotic agents are currently approved in the United States to treat depression associated with Bipolar I Disorder, and only one antipsychotic agent is currently approved in the United States to treat Bipolar II Disorder, quetiapine (Seroquel®). Quetiapine, however, has been reported to be highly sedating and to cause a number of metabolic side effects such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. It also has been associated with emergence of suicidal thoughts in some patients.

[0013] Estimates vary, but it is believed that approximately 30-60% of patients suffering from bipolar disorders suffer from Bipolar II Disorder. Despite its prevalence, Bipolar II Disorder is often misdiagnosed as either Major Depressive Disorder or Bipolar I Disorder, and improperly treated as a result. There is a need for safer and more effective treatments for Bipolar II Disorder, as well as a need for therapies effective to treat both Bipolar I Disorder and Bipolar II Disorder.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[0014] We have surprisingly found that lumateperone is useful to treat Bipolar II Disorder. Clinical results suggest that lumateperone is at least as effective in this indication as existing antipsychotic agents in treating bipolar disorders, with particularly unexpected efficacy in Bipolar II Disorder, which is often resistant to treatment with antipsychotic agents. Moreover, lumateperone exhibits a favorable safety profile. The clinical trials demonstrate that, unlike many other antipsychotic agents, lumateperone does not increase akathisia, restlessness, or other movement disorders, it does not increase suicidal ideation, and it does not have significant metabolic side effects.

[0015] Accordingly, in a first aspect, the present disclosure provides a method for treating Bipolar II Disorder in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering a therapeutically

effective amount of lumateperone, in free base or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, to a patient in need thereof.

[0016] Further embodiments will be apparent from the following detailed description and examples.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0017] In a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating lumateperone as monotherapy in the treatment of major depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I or Bipolar II disorder, lumateperone 42 mg daily (administered orally as 60 mg of the tosylate salt) met the primary endpoint for

improvement in depression as measured by change from baseline versus placebo on the

Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score (p<0.001; effect size = 0.56), as well as its key secondary endpoint, Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar for Severity of Illness (CGI-BP-S) Total Score (p<0.001; effect size = 0.46).

[0018] Moreover, the patients did not exhibit emergence of mania as measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and a specific clinical global impression of severity for mania, meaning that the drug was effective in preventing the emergence of mania or hypomania, and did not trigger manic episodes or cause rapid cycling that is often linked to SSRIs in treatment of bipolar disorders.

[0019] Unexpectedly, in view of the generally limited efficacy of antipsychotics in Bipolar II Disorder, a subgroup analysis of patients with Bipolar II disorder showed that lumateperone at 42 mg daily was statistically significant superior versus placebo on the MADRS total score.

[0020] Lumateperone demonstrated a favorable safety profile in this trial, comparable to placebo. Unlike quetiapine, lumateperone did not appear to have any noticeable metabolic effects, such as such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, or weight gain. There were no adverse event reports of suicidal ideation, no suicides, and no discontinuations due to suicidal thoughts. Equally important, there were also no adverse event reports of extrapy rami dal symptoms, such as akathisia, restlessness, or other motor side effects.

[0021] Akathisia has been associated with the use of most antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs, particularly in bipolar disorders. Akathisia has been linked to suicide. This highlights the clinical importance of lumateperone, as it can treat Bipolar II Disorder without causing akathisia and is therefore less likely to cause suicidal behaviors.

[0022] In a first aspect, the present disclosure provides a method (Method 1) for the treatment of Bipolar II Disorder, comprising administering to a patient in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of lumateperone, in free base or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form. In further embodiments of the first aspect, the present disclosure provides:

1.1. Method 1, wherein the lumateperone is in the form of the tosylate salt (e.g., an acid addition salt of toluenesulfonic acid, such as a mono-tosylate salt or bis-tosylate salt), optionally wherein the salt is a solid crystalline salt, such as those disclosed in US 2011/112105 and/or US 2020/0157100, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

1.2. Method 1, wherein lumateperone is in the form of the free base.

1.3. Any foregoing method wherein the lumateperone is in deuterated form, e.g., wherein the deuterium: protium ratio for a specified carbon-bound hydrogen atom is significantly higher, e.g., at least 2x, for example at least lOx higher, than the natural isotope ratios.

1.4. Method 1.3 wherein the lumateperone is in deuterated form selected from:


wherein D represents a hydrogen position with substantially greater than natural deuterium incorporation (i.e., substantially greater than 0.0156%), e.g., greater than 60%, or greater than 70%, or greater than 80%, or greater than 90% or greater than 95%, or greater than 96%, or greater than 97%, or greater than 98%, or greater than 99%, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, e.g. tosylate salt form.

Any foregoing method, wherein the lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, is administered in a total daily dose equivalent to 6 to 60 mg of free base, e.g., equivalent to 20-50 mg of free base.

Any foregoing method, wherein the lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, is administered in a total daily dose equivalent to 25-30 mg of free base.

Any foregoing method, wherein the lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, is administered in a total daily dose equivalent to 40-45mg of free base.

Any foregoing method, wherein the method comprises once daily administration of a unit dosage for oral administration, for example a tablet or capsule, comprising about 42 mg of lumateperone free base equivalent, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, in combination or association with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

Any foregoing method, wherein the method comprises once daily administration of a tablet or capsule comprising about 60 mg of lumateperone tosylate optionally in deuterated form, in combination or association with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

. Any foregoing method, wherein the method comprises once daily administration of a unit dosage for oral administration, for example a tablet or capsule, comprising about 28 mg of lumateperone free base equivalent, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, in combination or association with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

. Any foregoing method, wherein the method comprises once daily administration of a tablet or capsule comprising about 40 mg of lumateperone tosylate optionally in deuterated form, in combination or association with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier. . Any foregoing method, wherein the method comprises once daily administration of a unit dosage for subcutaneous or transmucosal administration, e.g., a sublingual or buccal orally disintegrating tablet or film, comprising lumateperone in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, in an amount equivalent to 10-60 mg of free base, and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

. Any foregoing method wherein the method comprises administration of lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, in a long acting injectable form.

. Any foregoing method wherein the patient has been diagnosed with Bipolar II Disorder. . Any foregoing method wherein the condition to be treated is depression in Bipolar II Disorder, or a depressive episode associated with Bipolar II Disorder (e.g., a major depressive episode).

. Any foregoing method wherein the condition to be treated includes mixed affective episodes in Bipolar II Disorder.

. Any foregoing method wherein the condition to be treated includes hypomanic episodes. . Any foregoing method wherein the treatment suppresses mania or hypomania.

. Any foregoing method wherein the treatment does not trigger manic or hypomanic episodes or rapid cycling.

. Any foregoing method wherein, during the course of treatment, the patient does not exhibit emergence of mania or hypomania as measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS).

. Any foregoing method wherein, during the course of treatment, the patient shows improvement in depressive symptoms, e.g., as measured using one or more of the

Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Wechsler Depression Rating Scale, the Raskin Depression Rating Scale, the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS), or the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS)

. Any foregoing method wherein, during the course of treatment, the patient shows improvement in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score (e.g., improvement within 8 days or less after initiation of treatment).

. Any foregoing method wherein, following treatment, the patient shows improvement in Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar for Severity of Illness (CGI-BP-S) (e.g., improvement within 8 days or less after initiation of treatment).

. Any foregoing method wherein, during the course of treatment, the patient shows improvement in Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar Depression for Severity of Illness (CGI- BP- Depression-S) (e.g., improvement within 8 days or less after initiation of treatment).

. Any foregoing method wherein, during the course of treatment, the patient does not show an increase in Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar Mania for Severity of Illness

(C GI-BP-Mani a- S) .

. Any foregoing method wherein, during the course of treatment, the patient shows improvement in overall mental health, e.g., as measured using Clinical Global Impression -Severity (CGI-S) or Clinical Global Impression- Improvement (CGI-I) (e.g., improvement within 8 days or less after initiation of treatment).

. Any foregoing method wherein the treatment does not result in metabolic side effects, e.g., does not result in one or more of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, or weight gain.

. Any foregoing method wherein the treatment does not induce suicidal ideation or suicidal thoughts.

. Any foregoing method wherein the treatment does not induce extrapy rami dal symptoms, e.g., one or more of akathisia, akinesia, restlessness, acute dyskinesia, dystonic reactions, tardive dyskinesia, Parkinson’ s-like symptoms, or neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

. Any foregoing method wherein the treatment does not induce akathisia.

. Any foregoing method wherein the lumateperone in free base or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, is administered as monotherapy for treatment of Bipolar II Disorder.

. Any foregoing method wherein the patient is concurrently receiving a mood-stabilizing agent, e.g., selected from lithium, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate (including divalproex (a.k.a. valproate semi sodium), sodium valproate, and other free, salt or complexed forms of valproic acid).

. Any foregoing method wherein the patient is concurrently receiving lithium or valproate. . Any foregoing method wherein the patient is under the age of 18.

. Any foregoing method wherein the patient is an adult, e.g., over the age of 18, e.g., between the ages of 18 and 75, inclusive.

. Any foregoing method wherein the patient is elderly, e.g., 65 or older, e.g. 75 or older. 1.37. Any foregoing method wherein the lumateperone in free or salt form is indicated for use in the treatment of depression in Bipolar I Disorder and Bipolar II Disorder.

1.38. Any foregoing method wherein the duration of treatment is six weeks or less.

1.39. Any foregoing method wherein the treatment is a maintenance treatment.

1.40. Any foregoing method wherein the duration of treatment is six weeks or more.

1.41. Any foregoing method, wherein the patient was previously treated with an SSRI (e.g., such treatment was ineffective and/or discontinued, such as due to side effects).

1.42. Method 1.41, wherein said SSRI is selected from citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.

1.43. Any foregoing method, wherein the patient was previously treated with an antipsychotic, such as an atypical antipsychotic (e.g., such treatment was ineffective and/or discontinued, such as due to side effects).

1.44. Method 1.43, wherein said antipsychotic is selected from haloperidol, aripiprazole, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, lurasidone, paliperidone, iloperidone, ziprasidone, brexipiprazole, asenapine, clozapine, and zotepine.

[0023] In another aspect, the disclosure provides lumateperone, in free or

pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, for use in the treatment of Bipolar II Disorder, e.g., for use in any of Methods 1, et seq.

[0024] In another aspect, the disclosure provides the use of lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of Bipolar II Disorder, e.g., for use in any of Methods 1, et seq.

[0025] The words "treatment" and "treating" are to be understood accordingly as embracing prophylaxis and treatment or amelioration of symptoms of disease and/or treatment of the cause of the disease. In particular embodiments, the words“treatment” and“treating” refer to prophylaxis or amelioration of symptoms of the disease.

[0026]“Patient” as used herein means a human patient, unless otherwise indicated.

[0027] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of lumateperone include pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts, for example, toluenesulfonic acid addition salts (tosylate salts). Tosylate salts of lumateperone include the monotosylate salt and the bis-tosylate salt. Unless otherwise indicated, the term“lumateperone tosylate” refers to the mono-tosylate salt. Lumateperone tosylate is sold as Caplyta™. Where dosages or amounts of a salt are given by weight, e.g.,

milligrams per day or milligrams per unit dose, the dosage amount of the salt is given as the weight of the corresponding free base, unless otherwise indicated.

[0028] The term“concurrently” when referring to a therapeutic use refers to administration of two or more active ingredients to a patient as part of a regimen for the treatment of a disease or disorder, whether the two or more active agents are given at the same or different times or whether given by the same or different routes of administrations. Concurrent administration of the two or more active ingredients may be at different times on the same day, or on different dates or at different frequencies.

[0029] Dosages employed in practicing the present disclosure will of course vary depending, e.g. on the particular disease or condition to be treated, the particular active compounds used, the mode of administration, and the therapy desired. Lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, may be administered by any suitable route, including oral, parenteral, transdermal, or transmucosal, for example in the form of a tablet, a capsule, a subcutaneous injection, long acting injectable (depot), or an oral, rapidly disintegrating tablet or film for sublingual or buccal administration.

[0030] In some embodiments, lumateperone is provided as a tablet or capsule for oral administration, comprising lumateperone tosylate in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

[0031] In some embodiments, lumateperone is provided as a rapidly disintegrating tablet or film for sublingual or buccal administration, comprising lumateperone tosylate in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.

[0032] In some embodiments, lumateperone, in free or pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, optionally in deuterated form, is administered as a depot formulation, e.g., by dispersing, dissolving, suspending, or encapsulating the compound in a polymeric matrix as described in herein, such that the compound is continually released as the polymer degrades over time. The release of the lumateperone from the polymeric matrix provides for the controlled- and/or delayed- and/or sustained-release, e.g., from the pharmaceutical depot composition, into a subject, for example a warm-blooded animal such as man, to which the pharmaceutical depot is administered. Thus, the pharmaceutical depot delivers lumateperone to the subject at

concentrations effective for treatment of the particular disease or medical condition over a sustained period of time, e.g., 1 week to 3 months.

[0033] Polymers useful for the polymeric matrix in the Composition of the Invention (e.g.,

Depot composition of the Invention) may include a polyester of a hydroxyfatty acid and derivatives thereof or other agents such as polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, polycitric acid, polymalic acid, poly-beta. -hydroxybutyric acid, epsilon. -capro-lactone ring opening polymer, lactic acid-glycolic acid copolymer, 2-hydroxybutyric acid-glycolic acid copolymer, polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol copolymer or polyglycolic acid-polyethylene glycol copolymer), a polymer of an alkyl alpha-cyanoacrylate (for example poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate)), a

polyalkylene oxalate (for example polytrimethylene oxalate or polytetramethylene oxalate), a polyortho ester, a polycarbonate (for example polyethylene carbonate or polyethylene propylene carbonate), a poly ortho-carbonate, a polyamino acid (for example poly-gamma. -L-alanine, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamic acid or poly-y-methyl-L-glutamic acid), a hyaluronic acid ester, and the like, and one or more of these polymers can be used.

[0034] If the polymers are copolymers, they may be any of random, block and/or graft copolymers. When the above alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids, hydroxydicarboxylic acids and hydroxytricarboxylic acids have optical activity in their molecules, any one of D-isomers, L-isomers and/or DL-isomers may be used. Among others, alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acid polymer (preferably lactic acid-glycolic acid polymer), its ester, poly-alpha-cyanoacrylic acid esters, etc. may be used, and lactic acid-glycolic acid copolymer (also referred to as poly(lactide-alpha-glycolide) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and hereinafter referred to as PLGA) are preferred. Thus, in one aspect the polymer useful for the polymeric matrix is PLGA. As used herein, the term PLGA includes polymers of lactic acid (also referred to as polylactide, poly(lactic acid), or PLA). Most preferably, the polymer is the biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer, such as PLGA 50:50, PLGA 85: 15 and PLGA 90: 10

[0035] In one such embodiment, the polymeric matrix of the invention is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric material. The term“biocompatible” is defined as a polymeric material that is not toxic, is not carcinogenic, and does not significantly induce inflammation in body tissues. The matrix material should be biodegradable wherein the polymeric material should degrade by bodily processes to products readily disposable by the body and should not accumulate in the body. The products of the biodegradation should also be biocompatible with the body in that the polymeric matrix is biocompatible with the body. Particular useful examples of polymeric matrix materials include poly(glycolic acid), poly-D,L-lactic acid, poly-L-lactic acid, copolymers of the foregoing, poly(aliphatic carboxylic acids), copolyoxalates, polycaprolactone, polydioxanone, poly(ortho carbonates), poly (acetals), poly(lactic acid-caprolactone), polyorthoesters, poly(glycolic acid-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, and natural polymers including albumin, casein, and waxes, such as, glycerol mono- and distearate, and the like. One suitable polymer for use in the practice of this invention is dl(polylactide-co-glycolide). In one embodiment, the molar ratio of lactide to glycolide in such a copolymer be in the range of from about 75:25 to 50:50.

[0036] Useful PLGA polymers may have a weight-average molecular weight of from about 5,000 to 500,000 Daltons, preferably about 150,000 Daltons. Dependent on the rate of degradation to be achieved, different molecular weight of polymers may be used. For a diffusional mechanism of drug release, the polymer should remain intact until all of the drug is released from the polymeric matrix and then degrade. The drug can also be released from the polymeric matrix as the polymeric excipient bioerodes.

[0037] The PLGA may be prepared by any conventional method, or may be commercially available. For example, PLGA can be produced by ring-opening polymerization with a suitable catalyst from cyclic lactide, glycolide, etc. (see EP-0058481B2; Effects of polymerization variables on PLGA properties: molecular weight, composition and chain structure).

[0038] It is believed that PLGA is biodegradable by means of the degradation of the entire solid polymer composition, due to the break-down of hydrolysable and enzymatically cleavable ester linkages under biological conditions (for example in the presence of water and biological enzymes found in tissues of warm-blooded animals such as humans) to form lactic acid and glycolic acid. Both lactic acid and glycolic acid are water-soluble, non-toxic products of normal metabolism, which may further biodegrade to form carbon dioxide and water. In other words, PLGA is believed to degrade by means of hydrolysis of its ester groups in the presence of water, for example in the body of a warm-blooded animal such as man, to produce lactic acid and glycolic acid and create the acidic microclimate. Lactic and glycolic acid are by-products of various metabolic pathways in the body of a warm-blooded animal such as man under normal physiological conditions and therefore are well tolerated and produce minimal systemic toxicity.

[0039] For the avoidance of doubt, any disclosure of a numerical range, e.g.,“up to X” amount is intended to include the upper numerical limit X. Therefore, a disclosure of“up to 60 mg” is intended to include 60 mg.

[0040] All references cited herein are hereby incorporated by referenced in their entireties. In the event of a conflict in a definition in the present disclosure and that of a cited reference, the present disclosure controls.

[0041] The disclosure is further illustrated in the following examples, which are meant to be exemplary and not limiting.

Example 1: Clinical Trial in Bipolar Disorder patients


[0042] A multi-center, multi-national, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled clinical trial is conducted substantially in accordance with the following protocol.

[0043] Patients are recruited according to the following criteria:

- Major Inclusion Criteria: Male or female subjects of any race, ages 18-75 inclusive, with a clinical diagnosis of Bipolar I or Bipolar II disorder, experiencing a current major depressive episode, and able to provide written informed consent.

- Major Exclusion Criteria: Any female subject who is pregnant or breast-feeding, and any subject judged to be medically inappropriate for study participation.

[0044] A total of 381 patients recruited in accordance with the above criteria are randomized 1 : 1 to two study arms: (i) lumateperone 42 mg (administered orally as 60 mg of lumateperone tosylate) and (ii) placebo. In the lumateperone arm, lumateperone (lumateperone tosylate 60 mg) is administered once daily every evening for 6 weeks. In the placebo arm, placebo is

administered once daily every evening for 6 weeks. The patients do not receive other

medications for treatment of bipolar disorders. The study is quadruple-masked (i.e., to participant, care provider, investigator, and outcomes assessor).

[0045] The total study duration is about 10 weeks, including up to 2 weeks screening period (washout of prohibited medications), a 6-week double-blind treatment period, and 2-week safety follow-up period.

[0046] The primary outcome measure is the Montgomery -Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) [Time Frame: Day 43] Secondary outcome measures are the Clinical Global Impression Scale, Bipolar version (CGI-BP) [Time Frame: Day 43] and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire - Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) [Time Frame: Day 43] [0047] A further objective of the study is to determine the safety and tolerability of lumateperone versus placebo as measured by:

a. Incidence of Adverse Events (AEs)

b. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)

c. Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS)

d. Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)

e. Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS)

f. Simpson Angus Scale (SAS)

g. Clinical laboratory evaluations

h. Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

i. Vital sign measurements

j. Physical examination and neurological findings

[0048] The patient disposition is as follows:

Table 1

0049] The change seen from baseline to Day 43 in MADRS total score was as follows:

Table 2

0050] The change seen from baseline to Day 43 in CGI-BP-S total score was as follows:

Table 3


0051] Lumateperone 42 mg was thus superior to placebo as demonstrated by statistically significant improvements on MADRS Total Score and CGI-BP-S which were the primary and key secondary measures in this study. The improvements seen in this study with Lumateperone 42 mg are considered to be clinically meaningful.

[0052] The safety profile of lumateperone was similar to placebo. A summary of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) is as follows:

Table 4


0053] Lumateperone 42 mg was generally safe and well tolerated. The most commonly reportec adverse events that were observed at a rate greater than 5% and higher than placebo were headache, somnolence and nausea. Importantly, the rates of akathisia and extrapy rami dal symptoms were less than 1% and similar to placebo.

[0054] In this trial, once-daily lumateperone 42 mg met the primary endpoint with statistically significant greater improvement over placebo at week 6 (trial endpoint), as measured by change from baseline on the MADRS total score. In the intent-to-treat (ITT) study population, the least squares (LS) mean reduction from baseline for lumateperone 42 mg was 16.7 points, versus 12.1 points for placebo (LS mean difference = 4.6 points; effect size = 0.56, p<0.001). Moreover, lumateperone 42 mg showed statistically significant separation from placebo as early as week 1, which was maintained at every time point throughout the entire trial.

[0055] Lumateperone 42 mg also met the key secondary endpoint of statistically significant improvement on the CGI-BP-S Total Score (p<0.001; effect size = 0.46) and on the CGI component that specifically assesses depression (CGI- S Depression Score; p<0.001; effect size = 0.5).

[0056] These results were supported by statistically significant benefits on responder rates and remission rates, demonstrating the clinical meaningfulness of the primary outcome. In addition, in a subgroup analysis of patients with Bipolar II disorder lumateperone 42 mg was statistically significant superior to placebo on the MADRS total score.