Processing

Please wait...

Settings

Settings

Goto Application

1. WO2020251907 - APPARATUSES AND METHODS FOR REFRIGERATION, HEATING, POWER GENERATION, AND PROPULSION

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1 A fluid interaction apparatus, wherein the fluid interaction apparatus comprises:

a working material;

a work exchange apparatus, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises an active surface against which the working material can do work, or with which the work exchange apparatus can do work on the working material;

a body force generating apparatus, wherein the direction of the body force applied to the working material by the body force generating apparatus comprises a non-zero component in the positive or negative direction of the external or outward surface normal of the active surface of the work exchange apparatus.

2. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange

apparatus comprises:

a converging duct, and wherein the active surface is the interior wetted surface of the duct, and wherein the active external surface normal has a non zero component directed against or upstream of the free stream flow direction, and where the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the converging duct has a non-zero component in the positive or same direction of the active external surface normal

3. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 2, wherein the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the converging duct has a substantial component in the radially inward direction of the duct, perpendicular to the local free stream flow during level cruise

4. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 2, wherein the body force is configured to reduce the perceived pressure on the exterior active surface of the duct, such that thermal energy can be extracted from the working material and converted into useful mechanical or electrical work at a later time or space, such as in a subsequent and downstream work exchange apparatus, such as a conventional diverging duct.

5. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 2, wherein the duct can be circular, elliptical, polygonal, rectangular, or square

6. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises a converging duct, and wherein the active surface is the interior wetted surface of the duct, and wherein the active external surface normal has a non-zero component directed against or upstream of the streamwise flow direction, and where the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the converging duct has a non-zero component in the negative or opposite direction of the active external surface normal

7. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 6, wherein the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the converging duct has a substantial component in the radially outward direction of the duct, perpendicular to the local free stream flow during level cruise

8. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 6, wherein the body force is configured to increase the perceived pressure on the exterior active surface of the duct, such that thermal energy can be delivered to, or applied on, the working material and by the application of mechanical work onto the working material by the active surface of the duct.

9. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises a diverging duct, and wherein the active surface is the interior wetted surface of the duct, and wherein the active external surface normal has a non-zero component directed streamwise, or downstream of the free stream flow direction, and where the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the diverging duct has a non-zero component in the negative or opposite direction of the active external surface normal

10. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 9, wherein the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the diverging duct has a substantial component in the radially outward direction of the duct, perpendicular to the local free stream flow during level cruise

11. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 9, wherein the body force is configured to increase the perceived pressure on the exterior active surface of the duct, such that thermal energy can be extracted from the working material and converted into useful mechanical work, such as thrust or electricity.

12. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 9, wherein the duct can be circular, elliptical, polygonal, rectangular, or square

13. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises a diverging duct, and wherein the active surface is the interior wetted surface of the duct, and wherein the active external surface normal has a non-zero component directed streamwise, or downstream of the free stream flow direction, and where the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the diverging duct has a non-zero component in the positive or same direction of the active external surface normal

14. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 6, wherein the component of the body force acting on at least a portion of the volume of fluid entering the diverging duct has a substantial component in the radially intward direction of the duct, perpendicular to the local free stream flow during level cruise

15. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 13, wherein the body force is configured to reduce the perceived pressure on the exterior active surface of the duct, such that thermal energy can be delivered to, or applied on, the working material and by the application of mechanical work onto the working material by the active surface of the duct.

16. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the working fluid is compressible, such as air, nitrogen, helium

17. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the local free stream fluid flow is supersonic or faster than compression or expansion waves within the fluid

18. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the local free stream fluid flow is subsonic.

19. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the working fluid is substantially incompressible, such as water.

20. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises turbomachinery, such as an axial or centrifugal compressor, where the active surface can comprise the propeller or rotor blades.

21. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises propeller blades, or rotor discs, or turbomachinery of any kind, where the active surface can comprise the propeller or rotor blades.

22. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises reciprocating pistons, and where the active surface is the wetted surface of the piston head which is in contact with the working fluid within any adjacent chambers

23. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises a separately arranged, specially configured additional body force generating apparatus configured to do work on the fluid or allow the fluid to do work against it.

24. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the component of the body force is substantially perpendicular to the local free stream flow which interacts with the fluid interaction apparatus, such as a duct or otherwise conventional jet engine.

25. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus gravitational in nature.

26. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus inertial in nature.

27. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 26, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus is configured to rotate a volume or bulk of a working fluid in order to provide a perceived inertial body force per mass to the molecules in the working fluid.

28. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 26, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus is configured to accelerate in inertial space a volume or bulk of a working fluid in order to provide a perceived inertial body force per mass to the molecules in the working fluid.

29. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus electrical in nature.

30. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 29, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus comprises an electrical field generating apparatus, and wherein the working material comprises mobile electrical charges

31. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 29, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus comprises an electrical field generating apparatus, and wherein the working material comprises molecules or objects which carry a permanent or induced electrical polarization

32. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus magnetic in nature.

33. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 32, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus comprises a magnetic field generating apparatus, and wherein the working material comprises molecules or objects which carry a permanent or induced magnetic dipole or multipole.

34. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus mechanical in nature.

35. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 34, wherein the body force per unit mass generating apparatus comprises annular, but not necessarily circular, airfoils or ducts configured to induce a pressure gradient substantially perpendicularly to the flow direction in a manner similar to a conventional body force generating apparatus.

36. The fluid interaction apparatus of any one of claims 1-35 wherein the thrust produced by such an apparatus is employed to propel and aircraft, such as commercial airliners or transport, watercraft, such as cruise ships or container ships, or land vehicles, such as a car, truck, motorcycle, bike.

37. A system comprising two or more apparatuses of any one of claim.

38. A system comprising two or more apparatuses of any one of claim, where at least two are connected in series, with the outlet of a first fluid interaction apparatus is at the same time the inlet of a second fluid interaction apparatus.

39. A system comprising two or more apparatuses of any one of claim, where at least two are connected in series, with the outlet of a first fluid interaction apparatus is at the same time the inlet of a second fluid interaction apparatus.

40. The system of claim 39, wherein a converging duct can be arranged upstream of a diverging duct

41. The system of claim 39, wherein a converging duct can be arranged adjacent to a diverging duct

42. A system comprising at least two systems of claim 41, wherein the fluid flow between any two such systems can comprise supersonic or subsonic flow velocities

43. A system comprising at least two systems of claim 41, wherein the fluid flow between any two such systems can comprise supersonic flow velocities

44. A system comprising at least two systems of claim 41, wherein the fluid flow between any two such systems can comprise subsonic flow velocities

45. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus also comprises a

working chamber,

apparatuses such as valves configured for drawing and expelling fluid from the chamber,

wherein work can be done on a working material in the chamber by a piston, and in wherein the working material within the chamber can do work on the piston;

wherein the work exchange apparatus comprises reciprocating pistons, where the active surface is the wetted surface of the piston head which is in contact with the working fluid within any adjacent chamber, and

wherein at least a portion of the working material within the working camber can be subjected to the body force per unit mass of at least one body force generating apparatus, wherein the body force per unit mass has a non zero component in the positive or negative surface normal of the piston, or the positive or negative instantaneous stroke direction of the piston in the chamber.

46. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 45, in which the component of the body force per unit mass acting on the working fluid has a non-zero component in the direction of the active piston head, in the opposite direction of the inward normal of the active piston head, and wherein the active piston head can be retracted from the chamber and increase the volume of the fluid inside the chamber in order to allow the working material to do work on the piston head and cool down and experience a reduction in entropy.

47. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 45, in which the component of the body force per unit mass acting on the working fluid has a non-zero component in the opposite direction of the active piston head, in the same direction of the inward normal of the active piston head, and wherein the active piston head can be inserted into the

chamber and decrease the volume of the fluid inside the chamber in order to allow the piston to do work on the fluid and heat the fluid while also reducing the entropy of the fluid.

48. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 45, in which the component of the body force per unit mass acting on the working fluid has a non-zero component in the direction of the active piston head, in the opposite direction of the inward normal of the active piston head, and wherein the active piston head can be inserted into the chamber and decrease the volume of the fluid inside the chamber in order to allow the piston to do work on the fluid and heat the fluid while also increasing the entropy of the fluid.

49. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 45, in which the component of the body force per unit mass acting on the working fluid has a non-zero component in the opposite direction of the active piston head, in the same direction of the inward normal of the active piston head, and wherein the active piston head can be retracted from the chamber and increase the volume of the fluid inside the chamber in order to allow the working material to do work on the piston head and cool down and experience an increase in entropy of the fluid.

50. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 45, wherein a the fluid interaction apparatus also comprises a compressor, such as a centrifugal compressor, axial compressor, or turbocharger, or supercharger, or a reciprocating piston compressor, upstream of the inlet valves of the working chamber, in order to increase the nominal operating pressure and mass flow rate through the working chamber

51. The fluid interaction apparatus of claim 45, wherein a the fluid interaction apparatus also comprises an expander, such as a centrifugal turbine, axial turbine, or a reciprocating piston engine, downstream of the outlet valves of the working chamber, in order to recuperate or recover any excess work performed by the piston in the working chamber

52. A method of interacting with a fluid, the method comprising: providing at least one fluid interaction apparatus of any one of claim, providing and employing a body force generating apparatus to artificially facilitate a reduced pressure on an active surface of a fluid interaction apparatus with an outward surface normal with non-zero component in the local upstream direction, and contributing to a net thrust and a cooling of the working material as a result

53. A method of interacting with a fluid, the method comprising: providing at least one fluid interaction apparatus of any one of claim, providing and employing a body force generating apparatus to artificially facilitate an increased pressure on an active surface of a fluid interaction apparatus with an outward surface normal with non-zero component in the local downstream direction, and contributing to a net thrust and a cooling of the working material as a result

54. A method of interacting with a fluid, the method comprising: providing at least one fluid interaction apparatus of any one of claim, providing and employing a body force generating apparatus to artificially facilitate an increase in pressure on an active surface of a fluid interaction apparatus with an outward surface normal with non-zero component in the local upstream direction, and contributing to a drag force and a heating of the working material as a result